Media

Welcome to the Media Page. The press releases, media publications, videos and other media info are in this page.

Articles

  1. Attaining the SDGs: Which way India needs to gaze? ETHealthworld.com, Oct 02, 2016. Link
  2. Public health: Why is now the best chance? Deccan Herald, July 04, 2016. Link
  3. Why endure with insurance? Prevent, Deccan Herald, March 23, 2016. Link
  4. Invest more to keep India heart-healthy, Deccan Herald, Dec 9, 2015. Link
  5. Who is responsible for people’s health?, Deccan Herald June 12, 2015. Link
  6. When in doubt, don’t use antibiotics, Deccan Herald July 02, 2015. Link
  7. Stress at work: A pill or a peril, Deccan Herald July 31, 2015. Link
  8. Thank you MPs, but what are you smoking?, Express Health Care, April 13, 2015. Link
  9. Only insurance will not make us healthy, Deccan Herald, Sep 12, 2015,. Link
  10. May is here, prevent dengue, Deccan Herald, May 12, 2015. Link
  11. Visiting private clinic for immunisation?, Deccan Herald, April 08, 2015,. Link
  12. Eternally neglected health system, Deccan Herald, July 17, 2015,. Link
  13. Epidemiology of TB in India, Express pharma, 15 March 2013. Link 
  14. Don’t let pressure get to you. The Hindu, April 8, 2013. Link
  15. Hospital bills make patients paupers, The Bangalore Mirror, Jul 6, 2013. Link
  16. Building a healthy Karnataka, One World South Asia, Jun 21, 2013. Stressed-Out Techies in Search of Relief Indulging in Risky Sex: Study. The New Indian Express. Dec 19, 2013. Link
  17. Health for Indians—who cares about it anyway?, BMJ Group Blogs. 20 February, 2014. Link
  18. It might be Survival that determines Shopping. J Epidemiol Community Health 2011. Link
  19. Use of Social Media in Public Health: Experience with Public Health in India- A Facebook group. Blogs on Public Health Global Network Link published on Nov 17, 2011

 

Media Mentions

  • SIX DENGUE DEATHS IN STATE SINCE JULY 1
  •  Public health needs could have been addressed better, Bangalore Mirror Bureau, Mar 19, 2016.  Link
  • Arogyavani reaches out to 4.19 lakh in 10 months, The Hindu, April 11, 2014. Link
  • Software professionals more prone to hypertension: study, The Hindu, April 26, 2014. Link
  • Garbage Increases Epidemic Deaths by 5 Times in One Year, The New Indian Express, December 27, 2013 . Link
  • Stressed-Out Techies in Search of Relief Indulging in Risky Sex: Study,The New Indian Express, December 19, 2013 . Link
  • Call for allocating funds to primary healthcare, The New Indian Express, Kochi. 06th January 2013. Link
  • Andhra Pradesh records most cases of acute diarrhea. The Times of India, Oct 22, 2013. Link
  • Farming of Catfish Thrives Despite Ban. The New Indian Express. 18th December 2013. Link
  • Garbage Increases Epidemic Deaths by 5 Times in One Year. The New Indian Express. 27th December 2013. Link
  • Seasonal Change Brings Health Woes, Sends More Smokers to Hospitals. The New Indian Express. 27th January 2014. Link
  • India Editor’s Choice, SOS: time to reclaim the air we breathe, BMJ 2014; 348 Link
  • India Editor’s Choice, SOS: time to reclaim the air we breathe, BMJ 2014; 348 Link

To find more details or contact, visit the following links

 

Research

Details of Earlier Research

[2009-2012, University of California Los Angeles]

Summary: Hypertension is a major contributor to the world-wide epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD).[1,2] It is estimated that hypertension causes 7.5 million deaths world-wide amounting to 12.8% of the total of all annual deaths.[3] Many risk factors leading to hypertension are modifiable and therefore provide an opportunity for preventive efforts.[4] There is an imperative need for population-based research to understand the modifiable factors such as job stress in leading to Hypertension.[4] I chose workplace settings for the research as they provide opportunities to explore determinants of these negative behaviors and are amenable to interventions.[1]

 

I led a moderately large study (N = 1071) in the software professionals in Bangalore, India employed at 27 different IT companies. The focus of our study was to study the association of Job stress and Hypertension as well as understanding the on the age gradient of hypertension prevalence. The research established higher prevalence of hypertension in the younger age cohort, affecting 31% professionals with 5% having malignant levels of hypertension. It was known earlier that south Asians are predisposed to be hypertensive a decade earlier compared the developed countries.[6] Our research suggested that hypertension in IT/ITES professionals occurs a decade earlier compared to the rest of India and two decades earlier compared to developed countries.[7] This suggests that if untreated, these professionals would go on to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVD) at an early age. The results also indicated that 46% of professionals were in pre-hypertension. In addition, I found that the dimensions of workplace autonomy and workplace environment are associated with hypertension.

 

Accomplishments

 

  1. The earlier understanding was that the association between job strain and coronary heart disease (CHD) is weak, with job strain slightly increasing the risk of coronary diseases by 3.4% in the general population.[9] Our meta-analysis showed statistically significant associations with 30% higher risk of hypertension for those with job strain. This proves that job strain might be affecting the CHDs through hypertension. The paper on meta-analysis of job stress and hypertension therefore is a significant contribution of the body of literature and would influence future research delineating the effects of stress on CHDs. As a testimony to the impact of the paper, the original paper by us was republished by the BMJ group in their postgraduate medical journal.

 

  1. It is important that individuals with higher stress have to change their lifestyle to prevent a progressive rise in BP using the recommended lifestyle modifications. [8] As a result of the findings from the study, the software companies have approached us and have requested to engage with them for improving health outcomes. I am in discussion with a major IT company to finalize on the details of engagement towards improving the health of the employees.

 

  1. I have published extensively from this work. The Publications from this project are as follows.
    1. Babu, Giridhara R., et al. “Republished: Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies.” Postgraduate Medical Journal 90.1065 (2014): 402-409.
    2. Giridhara R Babu, T. Mahapatra, and R. Detels. “Job stress and hypertension in younger software professionals in India.” Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 17.3 (2013): 101.
  • Babu GR, Jotheeswaran A, Mahapatra T, Mahapatra S, Kumar A SR, Detels R, Pearce N. Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies. Occup Environ Med. 2014 Mar; 71(3):220-7. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2013-101396. Epub 2013 Sep 24.
  1. Babu GR, Mahapatra T, Mahapatra S, Detels R. Sexual behavior and job stress in software professionals, Bengaluru – India. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2013 May; 17(2):58-65. doi: 10.4103/0019-5278.123165.
  2. Babu GR, Mahapatra T, Detels R. Application of mixed methods for exploration of the association of job stress and hypertension among software professionals in Bengaluru, India. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2013 May; 17(2):41-7. doi: 10.4103/0019-5278.123160.
  3. Babu GR. Prevalence of Job Stress, General Health Profile and Hypertension Among Professionals in the Information Technology Sector in Bengaluru, India. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles; 2012.
  • Babu GR, Detels R. Prioritizing Social Actions And Involving Community For Prevention Of The Non-Communicable Diseases. The Internet Journal of Epidemiology. 2011;9(2).
  • Babu GR. Obesity in Elderly and Life Expectancy in India. International Journal of Medicine and Public health. 2011;1(2):2-3.
  1. Giridhara R Babu, Sathyanarayana T N, Snehendu B Kar, Roger Detels. Perceived occupational stressors and the health of Software Professionals in Bengaluru, India. The Qualitative Report.
  1. Subsequent to the study in software professionals, we have now conducted the study in schoolteachers and employees of health department. These studies are helping us to collate evidence on worksite-based burden of NCDs and are helpful in designing the appropriate interventions. A series of papers are pending for publications on the burden of the diseases in different workgroups.
    1. Parimala, Giridhara R Babu, The Burden of Diabetes And Hypertension in the staff working in Directorate Of Health And Family Welfare Services, Bengaluru, Karnataka. [In press]
    2. Manjula, Sarin S, Giridhara R Babu. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in School teachers of Bengaluru. [In press]
    3. Sudha BK, Sarin S, Giridhara R Babu Prevalence of Hypertension in School teachers of Bengaluru. [In press]

 

References for Details of Earlier Research:

  1. Giridhara R Babu, Mahapatra, and R. Detels. “Job stress and hypertension in younger software professionals in India.” Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 17.3 (2013): 101.
  2. Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: Analysis of worldwide data. Lancet. 2005;365:217–23.
  3. World Health Organization. Global Health Risks: mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010; 2009.
  4. Srinath RK. Protecting the heart of global development. Heart Beat, The World Heart Federation Newsletter. 2005. Jun, [Last accessed on 2014 Jan 10].
  5. Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S, Anand S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part II: Variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies. Circulation. 2001;104:2855–64.
  6. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet. 1997;349:1436–42.
  7. Reddy KS. India wakes up to the threat of cardiovascular diseases. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:1370–2.
  8. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, Jr, et al. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:1206–52.
  9. Kivimäkii M, Nyberg ST, Batty GD, et al. Job strain as a risk factor for coronary 
heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data. Lancet 
2012;380:1491–7.

 

Summary of the Current Research

 

Summary of the Current Research [2009-2012, Public Health Foundation of India]

 

The carbohydrate ‘fuel’ metabolism in a pregnant woman may have a long-term impact on the development of her offspring (‘fuel-mediated teratogenesis’ hypothesis) including in utero exposure to maternal hyperglycaemia leading to fetal hyperinsulinaemia, and the consequent increase in fetal fat cells. Therefore, a feed-forward loop can exist of rising adiposity and hyperinsulinaemia throughout childhood, perhaps leading to obesity and diabetes in later life. There is a need for prospective examination of body fat distribution in children born to mothers with different glycaemic levels to understand the plausible association between glucose metabolism and future risk of diabetes in offspring.

I am the principal investigator on the ongoing project, exploring whether maternal glucose levels in pregnant women are related to skinfold thickness in their infants. I wrote the proposal that won the wellcome trust grant for setting up a multicentre cohort study to evaluate the effects of glucose levels in pregnancy on the risk of adverse infant outcomes, especially in predicting the risk of chronic diseases in infants. The study aimed to recruit 1045 participants over a period of 1 year, who will be followed up irrespective of their glycaemia status for a period of 15 months, beginning in the 24th week of gestation. We published a detailed protocol of the study in BMJ Open. [1] In order to extend the recruitment, complete the follow-up and create a repository of data/samples on all the participants, I have been awarded intermediate fellowship from Wellcome trust-DBT India alliance. With the funding support of WT-DBT India alliance, I am currently expanding the cohort study to aim to recruit more than 3000 pregnant women using the budget of US$ 573,796. Extending the study to multiple centres will provide the robust data for valid inferences.

 

Accomplishments

  1. The knowledge from this study may be extremely important for developing an effective strategy for the control of the obesity-hyperglycaemia epidemic in low-income and middle-income countries. The results from our study can provide insights into the relation of adiposity during infancy and childhood into adult adiposity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).
  2. Since 2012, I have worked towards finalizing the research instruments and we have ensured smooth conduct of the cohort study. A good coordination mechanism has been put in place between the research team and the hospital staff at the study centers. This has favorably enabled the arrangement of tracking down respondents for follow up by help from the hospital staff. As the principal investigator (PI), I have prepared the technical proposal in its entirety. I am convinced with the feasibility plan for the cohort study and am optimistic about the potential of expanding this cohort across multiple centres in Asia and thereby reap greater public health benefits.

Publications from the ongoing project are as follows:- (also visit, publications)

  1. Babu, G. R., Garadi, L., Murthy, G. V. S., & Kinra, S. (2014). Effect of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy on adiposity in their infants in India: a protocol of a multicentre cohort study. BMJ open, 4(6), e005417.
  2. Babu, G R., B. Tejaswi, M. Kalavathi, G. M. Vatsala, G. V. S. Murthy, Sanjay Kinra, and Sara E. Benjamin Neelon. “Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India.” Journal of Public Health Research 4, no. 1 (2015).
  3. Giridhara R Babu, GVS Murthy, R Deepa, A Yamuna, Prafulla Shriyan, Kiran Kumar H, Maithili Karthik, Keerthi Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, Prabhakaran D, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra. Maternal Antecedents of Adiposity and Studying the Transgenerational role of Hyperglycemia and Insulin (MAASTHI) Protocol of birth cohort at Bangalore, India. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (In Press)
  4. Giridhara R Babu, GVS Murthy, R Deepa, A Yamuna, Nolita Saldanha, Prafulla Shriyan, Maithili Karthik, Keerthi Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra. Screening for Gestational Hyperglycemia in Public Hospitals: Baseline Results from piloting MAASTHI, a Cohort Study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (In Press)
  5. Two more papers in review

Future Research Focus

In Asia, there is an imperative need to implement the practice of evidence based public health policy, planning and spending. My earlier and ongoing research provides the appropriate evidence, which can guide formulation of policy to bring in positive change that we can see in our lifetime. I am focused shaping my career towards independence and in building a long-term career in academic public health. Therefore, my future research plan is dedicated to explore the impact of tackling determinants in maternal and psychosocial environment and thereby promote positive health in populations through appropriate interventions.

 

The focus of my research is through realization of the following objectives.

  1. Generating evidence regarding maternal and psychosocial environment of NCDs
  2. Explore the appropriate interventions through pilot projects
  3. Ensuring evidence based public health policy planning and implementation

Objectives (a) and (b) help in validated identification and prioritization of maternal determinants of childhood obesity (and subsequent risk of diabetes and hypertension) in Asia.  The evidence available in the next three years, will aid in generation of rigorous, feasible and contextually specific population based pilot interventions. The objective (c) will be achieved though implementation of pilot interventions based on objectives (a) & (b). The three objectives together will contribute to logical and empirically grounded choices of public health interventions.

In the next 2-3 years, I want to pilot the interventions based on the results from the research on the role of maternal and psychosocial environment of NCDs in different populations. The overall results from testing the interventions will result in implementation of evidence-based public health. In the next 5 years, I wish to inculcate the evidence into policy formulations at national and international level to influence policymakers to bring positive changes with respect to NCD prevention and control. Due to demographic transition and lifestyle changes, the aging Asian populations continually are affected by NCDs. My engagement of research and advocacy in NCDs will aid in improving the health of aging population and improve productivity. I am uniquely positioned to study the effects from intergenerational perspective and earnestly believe that the positive changes will see transformation of societies in the next two decades. Therefore, my long-term goal is to ensure healthy populations are sustained through integrated technical and advocacy efforts. My track record of working in public health over 15 years has provided a clear resolve for the achieving the objectives listed above.

 

Summary of the Research Portfolio

  1. The research accomplishments in terms of grants are listed as follows:- Grants
Name of the Research Project Granted Funding Funding in Pipeline Funding Plans (applied and in process)
Hyperglycemia in Pregnancy and Adiposity in Infants      Expansion: $573,796

Pilot: $ 40000

     $ 298282        $ 5 million
Job Stress and Hypertension      US$ 30,000          $ 200,000
Various Projects funded by Government 2012-14     US$ 55,000          US$ 550,500          $ 75,000
Total      $ 698796    $ 848782 $ 5.3 million

 

  1. The research publications are listed in this link: Publications
  2. Advocacy is provided in this link: Links
  3. Professional Memberships

**A Work in Progress***

Research

Details of Earlier Research

[2009-2012, University of California Los Angeles]

Summary: Hypertension is a major contributor to the world-wide epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD).[1,2] It is estimated that hypertension causes 7.5 million deaths world-wide amounting to 12.8% of the total of all annual deaths.[3] Many risk factors leading to hypertension are modifiable and therefore provide an opportunity for preventive efforts.[4] There is an imperative need for population-based research to understand the modifiable factors such as job stress in leading to Hypertension.[4] I chose workplace settings for the research as they provide opportunities to explore determinants of these negative behaviors and are amenable to interventions.[1]

I led a moderately large study (N = 1071) in the software professionals in Bangalore, India employed at 27 different IT companies. The focus of our study was to study the association of Job stress and Hypertension as well as understanding the on the age gradient of hypertension prevalence. The research established higher prevalence of hypertension in the younger age cohort, affecting 31% professionals with 5% having malignant levels of hypertension. It was known earlier that south Asians are predisposed to be hypertensive a decade earlier compared the developed countries.[6] Our research suggested that hypertension in IT/ITES professionals occurs a decade earlier compared to the rest of India and two decades earlier compared to developed countries.[7] This suggests that if untreated, these professionals would go on to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVD) at an early age. The results also indicated that 46% of professionals were in pre-hypertension. In addition, I found that the dimensions of workplace autonomy and workplace environment are associated with hypertension.

 

Accomplishments

  1. The earlier understanding was that the association between job strain and coronary heart disease (CHD) is weak, with job strain slightly increasing the risk of coronary diseases by 3.4% in the general population.[9] Our meta-analysis showed statistically significant associations with 30% higher risk of hypertension for those with job strain. This proves that job strain might be affecting the CHDs through hypertension. The paper on meta-analysis of job stress and hypertension therefore is a significant contribution of the body of literature and would influence future research delineating the effects of stress on CHDs. As a testimony to the impact of the paper, the original paper by us was republished by the BMJ group in their postgraduate medical journal.
  2. It is important that individuals with higher stress have to change their lifestyle to prevent a progressive rise in BP using the recommended lifestyle modifications. [8] As a result of the findings from the study, the software companies have approached us and have requested to engage with them for improving health outcomes. I am in discussion with a major IT company to finalize on the details of engagement towards improving the health of the employees.
  3. I have published extensively from this work. The Publications from this project are as follows.
    1. Babu, Giridhara R., et al. “Republished: Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies.” Postgraduate Medical Journal 90.1065 (2014): 402-409.
    2. Giridhara R Babu, T. Mahapatra, and R. Detels. “Job stress and hypertension in younger software professionals in India.” Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 17.3 (2013): 101.
    3. Babu GR, Jotheeswaran A, Mahapatra T, Mahapatra S, Kumar A SR, Detels R, Pearce N. Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies. Occup Environ Med. 2014 Mar; 71(3):220-7. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2013-101396. Epub 2013 Sep 24.
    4. Babu GR, Mahapatra T, Mahapatra S, Detels R. Sexual behavior and job stress in software professionals, Bengaluru – India. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2013 May; 17(2):58-65. doi: 10.4103/0019-5278.123165.
    5. Babu GR, Mahapatra T, Detels R. Application of mixed methods for exploration of the association of job stress and hypertension among software professionals in Bengaluru, India. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2013 May; 17(2):41-7. doi: 10.4103/0019-5278.123160.
    6. Babu GR. Prevalence of Job Stress, General Health Profile and Hypertension Among Professionals in the Information Technology Sector in Bengaluru, India. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles; 2012.
    7. Babu GR, Detels R. Prioritizing Social Actions And Involving Community For Prevention Of The Non-Communicable Diseases. The Internet Journal of Epidemiology. 2011;9(2).
    8. Giridhara R Babu, Sathyanarayana T N, Snehendu B Kar, Roger Detels. Perceived occupational stressors and the health of Software Professionals in Bengaluru, India. The Qualitative Report.
  4. Subsequent to the study in software professionals, we have now conducted the study in schoolteachers and employees of health department. These studies are helping us to collate evidence on worksite-based burden of NCDs and are helpful in designing the appropriate interventions. A series of papers are pending for publications on the burden of the diseases in different workgroups.
    1. Parimala, Giridhara R Babu, The Burden of Diabetes And Hypertension in the staff working in Directorate Of Health And Family Welfare Services, Bengaluru, Karnataka. [In press]
    2. Manjula, Sarin S, Giridhara R Babu. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in School teachers of Bengaluru. [In press]
    3. Sudha BK, Sarin S, Giridhara R Babu Prevalence of Hypertension in School teachers of Bengaluru. [In press]

References for Details of Earlier Research:

  1. Giridhara R Babu, Mahapatra, and R. Detels. “Job stress and hypertension in younger software professionals in India.” Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 17.3 (2013): 101.
  2. Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: Analysis of worldwide data. Lancet. 2005;365:217–23.
  3. World Health Organization. Global Health Risks: mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010; 2009.
  4. Srinath RK. Protecting the heart of global development. Heart Beat, The World Heart Federation Newsletter. 2005. Jun, [Last accessed on 2014 Jan 10].
  5. Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S, Anand S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part II: Variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies. Circulation. 2001;104:2855–64.
  6. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet. 1997;349:1436–42.
  7. Reddy KS. India wakes up to the threat of cardiovascular diseases. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:1370–2.
  8. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, Jr, et al. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:1206–52.
  9. Kivimäkii M, Nyberg ST, Batty GD, et al. Job strain as a risk factor for coronary 
heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data. Lancet 
2012;380:1491–7.

 

Summary of the Current Research

Summary of the Current Research [2009-2012, Public Health Foundation of India]

The carbohydrate ‘fuel’ metabolism in a pregnant woman may have a long-term impact on the development of her offspring (‘fuel-mediated teratogenesis’ hypothesis) including in utero exposure to maternal hyperglycaemia leading to fetal hyperinsulinaemia, and the consequent increase in fetal fat cells. Therefore, a feed-forward loop can exist of rising adiposity and hyperinsulinaemia throughout childhood, perhaps leading to obesity and diabetes in later life. There is a need for prospective examination of body fat distribution in children born to mothers with different glycaemic levels to understand the plausible association between glucose metabolism and future risk of diabetes in offspring.

I am the principal investigator on the ongoing project, exploring whether maternal glucose levels in pregnant women are related to skinfold thickness in their infants. I wrote the proposal that won the wellcome trust grant for setting up a multicentre cohort study to evaluate the effects of glucose levels in pregnancy on the risk of adverse infant outcomes, especially in predicting the risk of chronic diseases in infants. The study aimed to recruit 1045 participants over a period of 1 year, who will be followed up irrespective of their glycaemia status for a period of 15 months, beginning in the 24th week of gestation. We published a detailed protocol of the study in BMJ Open. [1] In order to extend the recruitment, complete the follow-up and create a repository of data/samples on all the participants, I have been awarded intermediate fellowship from Wellcome trust-DBT India alliance. With the funding support of WT-DBT India alliance, I am currently expanding the cohort study to aim to recruit more than 3000 pregnant women using the budget of US$ 573,796. Extending the study to multiple centres will provide the robust data for valid inferences.

Accomplishments

  1. The knowledge from this study may be extremely important for developing an effective strategy for the control of the obesity-hyperglycaemia epidemic in low-income and middle-income countries. The results from our study can provide insights into the relation of adiposity during infancy and childhood into adult adiposity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).
  2. Since 2012, I have worked towards finalizing the research instruments and we have ensured smooth conduct of the cohort study. A good coordination mechanism has been put in place between the research team and the hospital staff at the study centers. This has favorably enabled the arrangement of tracking down respondents for follow up by help from the hospital staff. As the principal investigator (PI), I have prepared the technical proposal in its entirety. I am convinced with the feasibility plan for the cohort study and am optimistic about the potential of expanding this cohort across multiple centres in Asia and thereby reap greater public health benefits.

Publications from the ongoing project are as follows:- (also visit, publications)

  1. Babu, G. R., Garadi, L., Murthy, G. V. S., & Kinra, S. (2014). Effect of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy on adiposity in their infants in India: a protocol of a multicentre cohort study. BMJ open, 4(6), e005417.
  2. Babu, G R., B. Tejaswi, M. Kalavathi, G. M. Vatsala, G. V. S. Murthy, Sanjay Kinra, and Sara E. Benjamin Neelon. “Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India.” Journal of Public Health Research 4, no. 1 (2015).
  3. Giridhara R Babu, GVS Murthy, R Deepa, A Yamuna, Prafulla Shriyan, Kiran Kumar H, Maithili Karthik, Keerthi Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, Prabhakaran D, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra. Maternal Antecedents of Adiposity and Studying the Transgenerational role of Hyperglycemia and Insulin (MAASTHI) Protocol of birth cohort at Bangalore, India. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (In Press)
  4. Giridhara R Babu, GVS Murthy, R Deepa, A Yamuna, Nolita Saldanha, Prafulla Shriyan, Maithili Karthik, Keerthi Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra. Screening for Gestational Hyperglycemia in Public Hospitals: Baseline Results from piloting MAASTHI, a Cohort Study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (In Press)
  5. Two more papers in review

Future Research Focus

In Asia, there is an imperative need to implement the practice of evidence based public health policy, planning and spending. My earlier and ongoing research provides the appropriate evidence, which can guide formulation of policy to bring in positive change that we can see in our lifetime. I am focused shaping my career towards independence and in building a long-term career in academic public health. Therefore, my future research plan is dedicated to explore the impact of tackling determinants in maternal and psychosocial environment and thereby promote positive health in populations through appropriate interventions.

The focus of my research is through realization of the following objectives.

  1. Generating evidence regarding maternal and psychosocial environment of NCDs
  2. Explore the appropriate interventions through pilot projects
  3. Ensuring evidence based public health policy planning and implementation

Objectives (a) and (b) help in validated identification and prioritization of maternal determinants of childhood obesity (and subsequent risk of diabetes and hypertension) in Asia.  The evidence available in the next three years, will aid in generation of rigorous, feasible and contextually specific population based pilot interventions. The objective (c) will be achieved though implementation of pilot interventions based on objectives (a) & (b). The three objectives together will contribute to logical and empirically grounded choices of public health interventions.

In the next 2-3 years, I want to pilot the interventions based on the results from the research on the role of maternal and psychosocial environment of NCDs in different populations. The overall results from testing the interventions will result in implementation of evidence-based public health. In the next 5 years, I wish to inculcate the evidence into policy formulations at national and international level to influence policymakers to bring positive changes with respect to NCD prevention and control. Due to demographic transition and lifestyle changes, the aging Asian populations continually are affected by NCDs. My engagement of research and advocacy in NCDs will aid in improving the health of aging population and improve productivity. I am uniquely positioned to study the effects from intergenerational perspective and earnestly believe that the positive changes will see transformation of societies in the next two decades. Therefore, my long-term goal is to ensure healthy populations are sustained through integrated technical and advocacy efforts. My track record of working in public health over 15 years has provided a clear resolve for the achieving the objectives listed above.

 

Summary of the Research Portfolio

  1. The research accomplishments in terms of grants are listed as follows:- Grants
Name of the Research Project Granted Funding Funding in Pipeline Funding Plans (applied and in process)
Hyperglycemia in Pregnancy and Adiposity in Infants Expansion: $573,796

Pilot: $ 40000

     $ 298282        $ 5 million
Job Stress and Hypertension      US$ 30,000        $ 200,000
Various Projects funded by Government 2012-14     US$ 55,000          US$ 550,500          $ 75,000
Total      $ 698796    $ 848782 $ 5.3 million

 

  1. The research publications are listed in this link: Publications
  2. Advocacy is provided in this link: Links
  3. Professional Memberships

**A Work in Progress***

Research

Details of Earlier Research

[2009-2012, University of California Los Angeles]

Summary: Hypertension is a major contributor to the world-wide epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD).[1,2] It is estimated that hypertension causes 7.5 million deaths world-wide amounting to 12.8% of the total of all annual deaths.[3] Many risk factors leading to hypertension are modifiable and therefore provide an opportunity for preventive efforts.[4] There is an imperative need for population-based research to understand the modifiable factors such as job stress in leading to Hypertension.[4] I chose workplace settings for the research as they provide opportunities to explore determinants of these negative behaviors and are amenable to interventions.[1]

I led a moderately large study (N = 1071) in the software professionals in Bangalore, India employed at 27 different IT companies. The focus of our study was to study the association of Job stress and Hypertension as well as understanding the on the age gradient of hypertension prevalence. The research established higher prevalence of hypertension in the younger age cohort, affecting 31% professionals with 5% having malignant levels of hypertension. It was known earlier that south Asians are predisposed to be hypertensive a decade earlier compared the developed countries.[6] Our research suggested that hypertension in IT/ITES professionals occurs a decade earlier compared to the rest of India and two decades earlier compared to developed countries.[7] This suggests that if untreated, these professionals would go on to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVD) at an early age. The results also indicated that 46% of professionals were in pre-hypertension. In addition, I found that the dimensions of workplace autonomy and workplace environment are associated with hypertension.

 

Accomplishments

  1. The earlier understanding was that the association between job strain and coronary heart disease (CHD) is weak, with job strain slightly increasing the risk of coronary diseases by 3.4% in the general population.[9] Our meta-analysis showed statistically significant associations with 30% higher risk of hypertension for those with job strain. This proves that job strain might be affecting the CHDs through hypertension. The paper on meta-analysis of job stress and hypertension therefore is a significant contribution of the body of literature and would influence future research delineating the effects of stress on CHDs. As a testimony to the impact of the paper, the original paper by us was republished by the BMJ group in their postgraduate medical journal.
  2. It is important that individuals with higher stress have to change their lifestyle to prevent a progressive rise in BP using the recommended lifestyle modifications. [8] As a result of the findings from the study, the software companies have approached us and have requested to engage with them for improving health outcomes. I am in discussion with a major IT company to finalize on the details of engagement towards improving the health of the employees.
  3. I have published extensively from this work. The Publications from this project are as follows.
    1. Babu, Giridhara R., et al. “Republished: Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies.” Postgraduate Medical Journal 90.1065 (2014): 402-409.
    2. Giridhara R Babu, T. Mahapatra, and R. Detels. “Job stress and hypertension in younger software professionals in India.” Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 17.3 (2013): 101.
    3. Babu GR, Jotheeswaran A, Mahapatra T, Mahapatra S, Kumar A SR, Detels R, Pearce N. Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies. Occup Environ Med. 2014 Mar; 71(3):220-7. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2013-101396. Epub 2013 Sep 24.
    4. Babu GR, Mahapatra T, Mahapatra S, Detels R. Sexual behavior and job stress in software professionals, Bengaluru – India. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2013 May; 17(2):58-65. doi: 10.4103/0019-5278.123165.
    5. Babu GR, Mahapatra T, Detels R. Application of mixed methods for exploration of the association of job stress and hypertension among software professionals in Bengaluru, India. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2013 May; 17(2):41-7. doi: 10.4103/0019-5278.123160.
    6. Babu GR. Prevalence of Job Stress, General Health Profile and Hypertension Among Professionals in the Information Technology Sector in Bengaluru, India. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles; 2012.
    7. Babu GR, Detels R. Prioritizing Social Actions And Involving Community For Prevention Of The Non-Communicable Diseases. The Internet Journal of Epidemiology. 2011;9(2).
    8. Giridhara R Babu, Sathyanarayana T N, Snehendu B Kar, Roger Detels. Perceived occupational stressors and the health of Software Professionals in Bengaluru, India. The Qualitative Report.
  4. Subsequent to the study in software professionals, we have now conducted the study in schoolteachers and employees of health department. These studies are helping us to collate evidence on worksite-based burden of NCDs and are helpful in designing the appropriate interventions. A series of papers are pending for publications on the burden of the diseases in different workgroups.
    1. Parimala, Giridhara R Babu, The Burden of Diabetes And Hypertension in the staff working in Directorate Of Health And Family Welfare Services, Bengaluru, Karnataka. [In press]
    2. Manjula, Sarin S, Giridhara R Babu. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in School teachers of Bengaluru. [In press]
    3. Sudha BK, Sarin S, Giridhara R Babu Prevalence of Hypertension in School teachers of Bengaluru. [In press]

References for Details of Earlier Research:

  1. Giridhara R Babu, Mahapatra, and R. Detels. “Job stress and hypertension in younger software professionals in India.” Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 17.3 (2013): 101.
  2. Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: Analysis of worldwide data. Lancet. 2005;365:217–23.
  3. World Health Organization. Global Health Risks: mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010; 2009.
  4. Srinath RK. Protecting the heart of global development. Heart Beat, The World Heart Federation Newsletter. 2005. Jun, [Last accessed on 2014 Jan 10].
  5. Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S, Anand S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part II: Variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies. Circulation. 2001;104:2855–64.
  6. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet. 1997;349:1436–42.
  7. Reddy KS. India wakes up to the threat of cardiovascular diseases. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:1370–2.
  8. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, Jr, et al. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:1206–52.
  9. Kivimäkii M, Nyberg ST, Batty GD, et al. Job strain as a risk factor for coronary 
heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data. Lancet 
2012;380:1491–7.

 

Summary of the Current Research

Summary of the Current Research [2009-2012, Public Health Foundation of India]

The carbohydrate ‘fuel’ metabolism in a pregnant woman may have a long-term impact on the development of her offspring (‘fuel-mediated teratogenesis’ hypothesis) including in utero exposure to maternal hyperglycaemia leading to fetal hyperinsulinaemia, and the consequent increase in fetal fat cells. Therefore, a feed-forward loop can exist of rising adiposity and hyperinsulinaemia throughout childhood, perhaps leading to obesity and diabetes in later life. There is a need for prospective examination of body fat distribution in children born to mothers with different glycaemic levels to understand the plausible association between glucose metabolism and future risk of diabetes in offspring.

I am the principal investigator on the ongoing project, exploring whether maternal glucose levels in pregnant women are related to skinfold thickness in their infants. I wrote the proposal that won the wellcome trust grant for setting up a multicentre cohort study to evaluate the effects of glucose levels in pregnancy on the risk of adverse infant outcomes, especially in predicting the risk of chronic diseases in infants. The study aimed to recruit 1045 participants over a period of 1 year, who will be followed up irrespective of their glycaemia status for a period of 15 months, beginning in the 24th week of gestation. We published a detailed protocol of the study in BMJ Open. [1] In order to extend the recruitment, complete the follow-up and create a repository of data/samples on all the participants, I have been awarded intermediate fellowship from Wellcome trust-DBT India alliance. With the funding support of WT-DBT India alliance, I am currently expanding the cohort study to aim to recruit more than 3000 pregnant women using the budget of US$ 573,796. Extending the study to multiple centres will provide the robust data for valid inferences.

Accomplishments

  1. The knowledge from this study may be extremely important for developing an effective strategy for the control of the obesity-hyperglycaemia epidemic in low-income and middle-income countries. The results from our study can provide insights into the relation of adiposity during infancy and childhood into adult adiposity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).
  2. Since 2012, I have worked towards finalizing the research instruments and we have ensured smooth conduct of the cohort study. A good coordination mechanism has been put in place between the research team and the hospital staff at the study centers. This has favorably enabled the arrangement of tracking down respondents for follow up by help from the hospital staff. As the principal investigator (PI), I have prepared the technical proposal in its entirety. I am convinced with the feasibility plan for the cohort study and am optimistic about the potential of expanding this cohort across multiple centres in Asia and thereby reap greater public health benefits.

Publications from the ongoing project are as follows:- (also visit, publications)

  1. Babu, G. R., Garadi, L., Murthy, G. V. S., & Kinra, S. (2014). Effect of hyperglycaemia in pregnancy on adiposity in their infants in India: a protocol of a multicentre cohort study. BMJ open, 4(6), e005417.
  2. Babu, G R., B. Tejaswi, M. Kalavathi, G. M. Vatsala, G. V. S. Murthy, Sanjay Kinra, and Sara E. Benjamin Neelon. “Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India.” Journal of Public Health Research 4, no. 1 (2015).
  3. Giridhara R Babu, GVS Murthy, R Deepa, A Yamuna, Prafulla Shriyan, Kiran Kumar H, Maithili Karthik, Keerthi Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, Prabhakaran D, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra. Maternal Antecedents of Adiposity and Studying the Transgenerational role of Hyperglycemia and Insulin (MAASTHI) Protocol of birth cohort at Bangalore, India. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (In Press)
  4. Giridhara R Babu, GVS Murthy, R Deepa, A Yamuna, Nolita Saldanha, Prafulla Shriyan, Maithili Karthik, Keerthi Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra. Screening for Gestational Hyperglycemia in Public Hospitals: Baseline Results from piloting MAASTHI, a Cohort Study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (In Press)
  5. Two more papers in review

Future Research Focus

In Asia, there is an imperative need to implement the practice of evidence based public health policy, planning and spending. My earlier and ongoing research provides the appropriate evidence, which can guide formulation of policy to bring in positive change that we can see in our lifetime. I am focused shaping my career towards independence and in building a long-term career in academic public health. Therefore, my future research plan is dedicated to explore the impact of tackling determinants in maternal and psychosocial environment and thereby promote positive health in populations through appropriate interventions.

The focus of my research is through realization of the following objectives.

  1. Generating evidence regarding maternal and psychosocial environment of NCDs
  2. Explore the appropriate interventions through pilot projects
  3. Ensuring evidence based public health policy planning and implementation

Objectives (a) and (b) help in validated identification and prioritization of maternal determinants of childhood obesity (and subsequent risk of diabetes and hypertension) in Asia.  The evidence available in the next three years, will aid in generation of rigorous, feasible and contextually specific population based pilot interventions. The objective (c) will be achieved though implementation of pilot interventions based on objectives (a) & (b). The three objectives together will contribute to logical and empirically grounded choices of public health interventions.

In the next 2-3 years, I want to pilot the interventions based on the results from the research on the role of maternal and psychosocial environment of NCDs in different populations. The overall results from testing the interventions will result in implementation of evidence-based public health. In the next 5 years, I wish to inculcate the evidence into policy formulations at national and international level to influence policymakers to bring positive changes with respect to NCD prevention and control. Due to demographic transition and lifestyle changes, the aging Asian populations continually are affected by NCDs. My engagement of research and advocacy in NCDs will aid in improving the health of aging population and improve productivity. I am uniquely positioned to study the effects from intergenerational perspective and earnestly believe that the positive changes will see transformation of societies in the next two decades. Therefore, my long-term goal is to ensure healthy populations are sustained through integrated technical and advocacy efforts. My track record of working in public health over 15 years has provided a clear resolve for the achieving the objectives listed above.

 

Summary of the Research Portfolio

  1. The research accomplishments in terms of grants are listed as follows:- Grants
Name of the Research Project Granted Funding Funding in Pipeline Funding Plans (applied and in process)
Hyperglycemia in Pregnancy and Adiposity in Infants Expansion: $573,796

Pilot: $ 40000

     $ 298282        $ 5 million
Job Stress and Hypertension      US$ 30,000        $ 200,000
Various Projects funded by Government 2012-14     US$ 55,000          US$ 550,500          $ 75,000
Total      $ 698796    $ 848782 $ 5.3 million

 

  1. The research publications are listed in this link: Publications
  2. Advocacy is provided in this link: Links
  3. Professional Memberships

**A Work in Progress***

Research

Statement of Research Interests 

In Asia, there is an imperative need to implement the practice of evidence-based public health policy, planning, and spending. My earlier and ongoing research provides the appropriate evidence, which can guide the formulation of policy to bring in positive change that we can see in our lifetime. I am focused shaping my career towards independence and in building a long-term career in academic public health. Therefore, my future research plan is dedicated to exploring the impact of tackling determinants in the maternal and psychosocial environment and thereby promote positive health in populations through appropriate interventions.

The focus of my research is through the realization of the following objectives.

  1. Generating evidence regarding maternal and psychosocial environment of NCDs
  2. Explore the appropriate interventions through pilot projects
  3. Ensuring evidence-based public health policy planning and implementation

Objectives (a) and (b) help in identification and prioritization of maternal determinants of childhood obesity (and subsequent risk of diabetes and hypertension) in Asia.  The evidence available in the next three years will aid in the generation of rigorous, feasible and contextually specific population-based pilot interventions. The objective (c) will be achieved through the implementation of pilot interventions based on objectives (a) & (b). The three objectives together will contribute to logical and empirically grounded choices of public health interventions.

In the next few years, I want to pilot the interventions based on the results of the research on the role of the maternal and psychosocial environment of NCDs in different populations. The overall results from testing the interventions will result in the implementation of evidence-based public health. In the next 5 years, I wish to inculcate the evidence into policy formulations at the national and international level to influence policymakers to bring positive changes with respect to NCD prevention and control. Due to demographic transition and lifestyle changes, the aging Asian populations continually are affected by NCDs. My engagement of research and advocacy in NCDs will aid in improving the health of an aging population and improve productivity. I am uniquely positioned to study the effects from an intergenerational perspective and earnestly believe that the positive changes will see the transformation of societies in the next two decades. Therefore, my long-term goal is to ensure healthy populations are sustained through integrated technical and advocacy efforts. My track record of working in public health over 17 years has provided a clear resolve for the achieving the objectives listed above.

Ongoing Research Projects.

  1. Maternal Antecedents of Adiposity and Studying the Transgenerational role of Hyperglycemia and Insulin (MAASTHI): a prospective cohort study. Funded by Wellcome Trust DBT India Alliance: Link1 Link2 Link3
  2. Full meal supplementation: Evaluation of Effect in Pregnant and Lactating women (FEEL): Funded by Department of Women and Child, Government of Karnataka 
  3. Ambient and Indoor Air Pollution in Pregnancy on the risk of Low birth weight and Ensuing Effects in Infants (APPLE); A cohort study in South India.  Funded by Department of Science & Technology, Government of India

Details of the Ongoing Research Projects

  1. Maternal Antecedents of Adiposity and Studying the Transgenerational role of Hyperglycemia and Insulin (MAASTHI): a prospective cohort study. Funded by Wellcome Trust DBT India Alliance: Link1 LinkLink3

India is experiencing an epidemic of obesity-hyperglycaemia, which can be sustained and augmented through transgenerational transmission of adiposity and glucose intolerance in women. This presents an opportunity for exploring a clear strategy for the control of this epidemic in India. We conducted a study between November 2013 and May 2015 to inform the design of a large pregnancy cohort study. Based on the findings of this pilot, Currently, we are recruiting women in a birth cohort since April 2016. The protocol of the study documents the processes which aim at advancing the available knowledge, linking several steps in the evolution of obesity led hyperglycemia.

Maternal Antecedents of Adiposity and Studying the Transgenerational role of Hyperglycemia and Insulin (MAASTHI) is a cohort study in the public health facilities in Bangalore, India. The objective of MAASTHI is to prospectively assess the effects of glucose levels in pregnancy on the risk of adverse infant outcomes, especially in predicting the possible risk markers of later chronic diseases. The primary objective of the proposed study is to investigate the effect of glucose levels in pregnancy on skinfold thickness (adiposity) in infancy as a marker of future obesity and diabetes in offspring. The secondary objective is to assess the association between the psychosocial environment of mothers and adverse neonatal outcomes including adiposity. The study aims to recruit 5000 pregnant women and follow them and their offspring for a period of 4 years.

The carbohydrate ‘fuel’ metabolism in a pregnant woman may have a long-term impact on the development of her offspring (‘fuel-mediated teratogenesis’ hypothesis) including in utero exposure to maternal hyperglycemia leading to fetal hyperinsulinemia, and the consequent increase in fetal fat cells. Therefore, a feed-forward loop can exist of rising adiposity and hyperinsulinemia throughout childhood, perhaps leading to obesity and diabetes in later life. There is a need for prospective examination of body fat distribution in children born to mothers with different glycemic levels to understand the plausible association between glucose metabolism and future risk of diabetes in offspring.

We published detailed protocols of the study and pilot in open access peer-reviewed journals. (BMC,  BMJOpen)  In order to extend the recruitment, complete the follow-up and create a bio-repository, I have been awarded intermediate fellowship from Wellcome trust-DBT India alliance. With the funding support of WT-DBT India alliance, I am currently expanding the cohort study to aim to recruit more than 3000 pregnant women. Extending the study to multiple centers will provide the robust data for valid inferences.

Accomplishments

  • The knowledge from this study may be extremely important for developing an effective strategy for the control of the obesity-hyperglycaemia epidemic in low-income and middle-income countries. The results from our study can provide insights into the relation of adiposity during infancy and childhood into adult adiposity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).
  • We have been able to recruit more than 700 pregnant women. All women have undergone Hb and OGTT (Fasting and 2 Hr PPBS with 75g glucose).
  • Additional funding requests are underway for expansion of the birth cohort and for testing the additional hypotheses.

Publications from this project are as follows:- (also visit, publications)

  • Babu, G. R., Garadi, L., Murthy, G. V. S., & Kinra, S. (2014). Effect of hyperglycemia in pregnancy on adiposity in their infants in India: a protocol of a multicentre cohort study. BMJ open, 4(6), e005417.
  • Babu, G R., B. Tejaswi, M. Kalavathi, G. M. Vatsala, G. V. S. Murthy, Sanjay Kinra, and Sara E. Benjamin Neelon. “Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India.” Journal of Public Health Research 4, no. 1 (2015).
  • Babu GR, Murthy GV, Deepa R, Kumar HK, Karthik M, Deshpande K, Neelon SE, Prabhakaran D, Kurpad A, Kinra S. Maternal antecedents of adiposity and studying the transgenerational role of hyperglycemia and insulin (MAASTHI): a prospective cohort study. BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2016 Oct 14;16(1):311.
  • Giridhara R Babu, GVS Murthy, R Deepa, A Yamuna, Nolita Saldanha, Prafulla Shriyan, Maithili Karthik, Keerthi Deshpande, Sara E Benjamin Neelon, Anura Kurpad, Sanjay Kinra. Screening for Gestational Hyperglycemia in Public Hospitals: Baseline Results from piloting MAASTHI, a Cohort Study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (In Press)
  • “Association of Obesity with hypertension and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in India A meta-analysis of observational studies”  (In Peer review)
  • Two more papers in review

2. Full meal supplementation: Evaluation of Effect in Pregnant and Lactating women (FEEL): Funded by Department of Women and Child, Government of Karnataka 

Understanding the relation between maternal nutrition and birth outcomes provides a basis for developing nutritional interventions that will improve- birth outcomes, childhood growth and development long-term quality of life and reduce mortality, morbidity, and health-care costs. To address the issue of maternal undernutrition and consequential adverse effects on birth outcomes or growth of children, Department of Women and Child Development, Government of Karnataka is piloting a new strategy on the provision of One full meal served to Pregnant and Lactating mothers at AWC along with IFA supplement in order to ensure consumption the food meeting 40% of the day’s nutrient requirement. This initiative provides a unique opportunity to understand the impact of nutritious food on pregnancy outcome and child development.

 Primary Objective The overall aim of the intervention study is to study the impact of hot fully cooked meals provided to pregnant women in improving pregnancy and infant outcomes.

Secondary Objectives

  • To estimate the impact of the intervention on change in mean Hb% in the intervention arm compared to control arm.
  • To estimate the impact of the intervention on weight for length in the intervention arm compared to control arm.

3. Ambient and Indoor Air Pollution in Pregnancy on the risk of Low birth weight and Ensuing Effects in Infants (APPLE); A cohort study in South India.  Funded by Department of Science & Technology, Government of India

*Under Development*

Details of Earlier Research

[2009-2012, University of California Los Angeles]

Summary: Hypertension is a major contributor to the worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular disease (CVD).[1,2] It is estimated that hypertension causes 7.5 million deaths worldwide amounting to 12.8% of the total of all annual deaths.[3] Many risk factors leading to hypertension are modifiable and therefore provide an opportunity for preventive efforts.[4] There is an imperative need for population-based research to understand the modifiable factors such as job stress in leading to Hypertension.[4] I chose workplace settings for the research as they provide opportunities to explore determinants of these negative behaviors and are amenable to interventions.[1]

I led a moderately large study (N = 1071) in the software professionals in Bangalore, India employed at 27 different IT companies. The focus of our study was to study the association of Job stress and Hypertension as well as understanding the on the age gradient of hypertension prevalence. The research established higher prevalence of hypertension in the younger age cohort, affecting 31% professionals with 5% having malignant levels of hypertension. It was known earlier that south Asians are predisposed to be hypertensive a decade earlier compared the developed countries.[6] Our research suggested that hypertension in IT/ITES professionals occurs a decade earlier compared to the rest of India and two decades earlier compared to developed countries.[7] This suggests that if untreated, these professionals would go on to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVD) at an early age. The results also indicated that 46% of professionals were in pre-hypertension. In addition, I found that the dimensions of workplace autonomy and workplace environment are associated with hypertension.

 

Accomplishments

  1. The earlier understanding was that the association between job strain and coronary heart disease (CHD) is weak, with job strain slightly increasing the risk of coronary diseases by 3.4% in the general population.[9] Our meta-analysis showed statistically significant associations with 30% higher risk of hypertension for those with job strain. This proves that job strain might be affecting the CHDs through hypertension. The paper on the meta-analysis of job stress and hypertension, therefore, is a significant contribution to the body of literature and would influence future research delineating the effects of stress on CHDs. As a testimony to the impact of the paper, the original paper by us was republished by the BMJ group in their postgraduate medical journal.
  2. It is important that individuals with higher stress have to change their lifestyle to prevent a progressive rise in BP using the recommended lifestyle modifications. [8] As a result of the findings from the study, the software companies have approached us and have requested to engage with them for improving health outcomes. I am in discussion with a major IT company to finalize the details of engagement towards improving the health of the employees.
  3. I have published extensively on this work. The Publications from this project are as follows.
    1. Babu, Giridhara R., et al. “Republished: Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies.” Postgraduate Medical Journal 90.1065 (2014): 402-409.
    2. Giridhara R Babu, T. Mahapatra, and R. Detels. “Job stress and hypertension in younger software professionals in India.” Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 17.3 (2013): 101.
    3. Babu GR, Jotheeswaran A, Mahapatra T, Mahapatra S, Kumar A SR, Detels R, Pearce N. Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies. Occup Environ Med. 2014 Mar; 71(3):220-7. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2013-101396. Epub 2013 Sep 24.
    4. Babu GR, Mahapatra T, Mahapatra S, Detels R. Sexual behavior and job stress in software professionals, Bengaluru – India. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2013 May; 17(2):58-65. doi: 10.4103/0019-5278.123165.
    5. Babu GR, Mahapatra T, Detels R. Application of mixed methods for exploration of the association of job stress and hypertension among software professionals in Bengaluru, India. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2013 May; 17(2):41-7. doi: 10.4103/0019-5278.123160.
    6. Babu GR. Prevalence of Job Stress, General Health Profile, and Hypertension Among Professionals in the Information Technology Sector in Bengaluru, India. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles; 2012.
    7. Babu GR, Detels R. Prioritizing Social Actions And Involving Community For Prevention Of The Non-Communicable Diseases. The Internet Journal of Epidemiology. 2011;9(2).
    8. Giridhara R Babu, Sathyanarayana T N, Snehendu B Kar, Roger Detels. Perceived occupational stressors and the health of Software Professionals in Bengaluru, India. The Qualitative Report.
  4. Subsequent to the study in software professionals, we have now conducted the study in schoolteachers and employees of the health department. These studies are helping us to collate evidence on the worksite-based burden of NCDs and are helpful in designing the appropriate interventions. A series of papers are pending for publications on the burden of the diseases in different workgroups.
    1. Parimala, Giridhara R Babu, The Burden of Diabetes And Hypertension in the staff working in Directorate Of Health And Family Welfare Services, Bengaluru, Karnataka. [In press]
    2. Manjula, Sarin S, Giridhara R Babu. Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in School teachers of Bengaluru. [In press]
    3. Sudha BK, Sarin S, Giridhara R Babu Prevalence of Hypertension in School teachers of Bengaluru. [In press]

References for Details of Earlier Research:

  1. Giridhara R Babu, Mahapatra, and R. Detels. “Job stress and hypertension in younger software professionals in India.” Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 17.3 (2013): 101.
  2. Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J. Global burden of hypertension: Analysis of worldwide data. Lancet. 2005;365:217–23.
  3. World Health Organization. Global Health Risks: mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risks. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010; 2009.
  4. Srinath RK. Protecting the heart of global development. Heart Beat, The World Heart Federation Newsletter. 2005. Jun, [Last accessed on 2014 Jan 10].
  5. Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S, Anand S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part II: Variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies. Circulation. 2001;104:2855–64.
  6. Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Global mortality, disability, and the contribution of risk factors: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet. 1997;349:1436–42.
  7. Reddy KS. India wakes up to the threat of cardiovascular diseases. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;50:1370–2.
  8. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, Jr, et al. Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 2003;42:1206–52.
  9. Kivimäkii M, Nyberg ST, Batty GD, et al. Job strain as a risk factor for coronary 
heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data. Lancet 
2012;380:1491–7.

 

The research publications are listed in this link: Publications

Advocacy is provided in this link: Links

Professional Memberships

Media

Welcome to the Media Page. The press releases, media publications, videos and other media info are in this page.

Articles

  1. Public health: Why is now the best chance? Deccan Herald, July 04, 2016 Link
  2. Why endure with insurance? Prevent, Deccan Herald, March 23, 2016. Link
  3. Invest more to keep India heart-healthy, Deccan Herald, Dec 9, 2015. Link
  4. Who is responsible for people’s health?, Deccan Herald June 12, 2015. Link
  5. When in doubt, don’t use antibiotics, Deccan Herald July 02, 2015. Link
  6. Stress at work: A pill or a peril, Deccan Herald July 31, 2015. Link
  7. Thank you MPs, but what are you smoking?, Express Health Care, April 13, 2015. Link
  8. Only insurance will not make us healthy, Deccan Herald, Sep 12, 2015,. Link
  9. May is here, prevent dengue, Deccan Herald, May 12, 2015. Link
  10. Visiting private clinic for immunisation?, Deccan Herald, April 08, 2015,. Link
  11. Eternally neglected health system, Deccan Herald, July 17, 2015,. Link
  12. Epidemiology of TB in India, Express pharma, 15 March 2013. Link 
  13. Don’t let pressure get to you. The Hindu, April 8, 2013. Link
  14. Hospital bills make patients paupers, The Bangalore Mirror, Jul 6, 2013. Link
  15. Building a healthy Karnataka, One World South Asia, Jun 21, 2013. Stressed-Out Techies in Search of Relief Indulging in Risky Sex: Study. The New Indian Express. Dec 19, 2013. Link
  16. Health for Indians—who cares about it anyway?, BMJ Group Blogs. 20 February, 2014. Link
  17. It might be Survival that determines Shopping. J Epidemiol Community Health 2011. Link
  18. Use of Social Media in Public Health: Experience with Public Health in India- A Facebook group. Blogs on Public Health Global Network Link published on Nov 17, 2011

 

Media Mentions

  • SIX DENGUE DEATHS IN STATE SINCE JULY 1
  •  Public health needs could have been addressed better, Bangalore Mirror Bureau, Mar 19, 2016.  Link
  • Arogyavani reaches out to 4.19 lakh in 10 months, The Hindu, April 11, 2014. Link
  • Software professionals more prone to hypertension: study, The Hindu, April 26, 2014. Link
  • Garbage Increases Epidemic Deaths by 5 Times in One Year, The New Indian Express, December 27, 2013 . Link
  • Stressed-Out Techies in Search of Relief Indulging in Risky Sex: Study,The New Indian Express, December 19, 2013 . Link
  • Call for allocating funds to primary healthcare, The New Indian Express, Kochi. 06th January 2013. Link
  • Andhra Pradesh records most cases of acute diarrhea. The Times of India, Oct 22, 2013. Link
  • Farming of Catfish Thrives Despite Ban. The New Indian Express. 18th December 2013. Link
  • Garbage Increases Epidemic Deaths by 5 Times in One Year. The New Indian Express. 27th December 2013. Link
  • Seasonal Change Brings Health Woes, Sends More Smokers to Hospitals. The New Indian Express. 27th January 2014. Link
  • India Editor’s Choice, SOS: time to reclaim the air we breathe, BMJ 2014; 348 Link
  • India Editor’s Choice, SOS: time to reclaim the air we breathe, BMJ 2014; 348 Link

To find more details or contact, visit the following links

 

Media

Welcome to the Media Page. The press releases, media publications, videos and other media info are in this page.

Articles

  1. Public health: Why is now the best chance? Deccan Herald, July 04, 2016
  2. Why endure with insurance? Prevent, Deccan Herald, March 23, 2016. Link
  3. Invest more to keep India heart-healthy, Deccan Herald, Dec 9, 2015. Link
  4. Who is responsible for people’s health?, Deccan Herald June 12, 2015. Link
  5. When in doubt, don’t use antibiotics, Deccan Herald July 02, 2015. Link
  6. Stress at work: A pill or a peril, Deccan Herald July 31, 2015. Link
  7. Thank you MPs, but what are you smoking?, Express Health Care, April 13, 2015. Link
  8. Only insurance will not make us healthy, Deccan Herald, Sep 12, 2015,. Link
  9. May is here, prevent dengue, Deccan Herald, May 12, 2015. Link
  10. Visiting private clinic for immunisation?, Deccan Herald, April 08, 2015,. Link
  11. Eternally neglected health system, Deccan Herald, July 17, 2015,. Link
  12. Epidemiology of TB in India, Express pharma, 15 March 2013. Link 
  13. Don’t let pressure get to you. The Hindu, April 8, 2013. Link
  14. Hospital bills make patients paupers, The Bangalore Mirror, Jul 6, 2013. Link
  15. Building a healthy Karnataka, One World South Asia, Jun 21, 2013. Stressed-Out Techies in Search of Relief Indulging in Risky Sex: Study. The New Indian Express. Dec 19, 2013. Link
  16. Health for Indians—who cares about it anyway?, BMJ Group Blogs. 20 February, 2014. Link
  17. It might be Survival that determines Shopping. J Epidemiol Community Health 2011. Link
  18. Use of Social Media in Public Health: Experience with Public Health in India- A Facebook group. Blogs on Public Health Global Network Link published on Nov 17, 2011

 

Media Mentions

  • SIX DENGUE DEATHS IN STATE SINCE JULY 1
  •  Public health needs could have been addressed better, Bangalore Mirror Bureau, Mar 19, 2016.  Link
  • Arogyavani reaches out to 4.19 lakh in 10 months, The Hindu, April 11, 2014. Link
  • Software professionals more prone to hypertension: study, The Hindu, April 26, 2014. Link
  • Garbage Increases Epidemic Deaths by 5 Times in One Year, The New Indian Express, December 27, 2013 . Link
  • Stressed-Out Techies in Search of Relief Indulging in Risky Sex: Study,The New Indian Express, December 19, 2013 . Link
  • Call for allocating funds to primary healthcare, The New Indian Express, Kochi. 06th January 2013. Link
  • Andhra Pradesh records most cases of acute diarrhea. The Times of India, Oct 22, 2013. Link
  • Farming of Catfish Thrives Despite Ban. The New Indian Express. 18th December 2013. Link
  • Garbage Increases Epidemic Deaths by 5 Times in One Year. The New Indian Express. 27th December 2013. Link
  • Seasonal Change Brings Health Woes, Sends More Smokers to Hospitals. The New Indian Express. 27th January 2014. Link
  • India Editor’s Choice, SOS: time to reclaim the air we breathe, BMJ 2014; 348 Link
  • India Editor’s Choice, SOS: time to reclaim the air we breathe, BMJ 2014; 348 Link

To find more details or contact, visit the following links

 

Giridhara R Babu

“”Public Health Matters because each Life Matters””-GRB

Public health is the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through organized efforts of the society (Detels). As an epidemiologist, I work with determinants of health or disease with other health-related factors in human populations.

I work as Additional Professor at Bangalore campus of Indian Institute of Public Health of PHFI at Bangalore. I am with foundation since April 2006.

I have PhD in Epidemiology from UCLA Jonathan and Karin Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles with doctoral research in Non Communicable Diseases. Other details can be found here. I started my professional work experience as Junior Resident at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.  Subsequently, I worked with World Health Organization for more than 5 years. The details of work experience are provided here.

I am interested in application of epidemiological methods in public health. With over thirteen years of public health experience in infectious diseases and doctoral level research in NCD’s, I am in constant endeavor to learn the dynamics of diseases in human populations. Currently, I am principal investigator of setting up a birth cohort in Bangalore, India. You can find more details about my research here.

Areas of interest:

Life course epidemiology, Epidemiology methods, Occupational Health and Public health in LMIC

Contact

Follow @epigiri

View Giridhara R Babu’s profile

Official page of Organization: PHFI

Facebook Group: Public Health in India

Tweets by @epigiri

Recent News

 

Media

Welcome to the Media Page. The press releases, media publications, videos and other media info are in this page.

Articles

  1. Why endure with insurance? Prevent, Deccan Herald, March 23, 2016. Link
  2. Invest more to keep India heart-healthy, Deccan Herald, Dec 9, 2015. Link
  3. Who is responsible for people’s health?, Deccan Herald June 12, 2015. Link
  4. When in doubt, don’t use antibiotics, Deccan Herald July 02, 2015. Link
  5. Stress at work: A pill or a peril, Deccan Herald July 31, 2015. Link
  6. Thank you MPs, but what are you smoking?, Express Health Care, April 13, 2015. Link
  7. Only insurance will not make us healthy, Deccan Herald, Sep 12, 2015,. Link
  8. May is here, prevent dengue, Deccan Herald, May 12, 2015. Link
  9. Visiting private clinic for immunisation?, Deccan Herald, April 08, 2015,. Link
  10. Eternally neglected health system, Deccan Herald, July 17, 2015,. Link
  11. Epidemiology of TB in India, Express pharma, 15 March 2013. Link 
  12. Don’t let pressure get to you. The Hindu, April 8, 2013. Link
  13. Hospital bills make patients paupers, The Bangalore Mirror, Jul 6, 2013. Link
  14. Building a healthy Karnataka, One World South Asia, Jun 21, 2013. Stressed-Out Techies in Search of Relief Indulging in Risky Sex: Study. The New Indian Express. Dec 19, 2013. Link
  15. Health for Indians—who cares about it anyway?, BMJ Group Blogs. 20 February, 2014. Link
  16. It might be Survival that determines Shopping. J Epidemiol Community Health 2011. Link
  17. Use of Social Media in Public Health: Experience with Public Health in India- A Facebook group. Blogs on Public Health Global Network Link published on Nov 17, 2011

 

Media Mentions

  • SIX DENGUE DEATHS IN STATE SINCE JULY 1
  •  Public health needs could have been addressed better, Bangalore Mirror Bureau, Mar 19, 2016.  Link
  • Arogyavani reaches out to 4.19 lakh in 10 months, The Hindu, April 11, 2014. Link
  • Software professionals more prone to hypertension: study, The Hindu, April 26, 2014. Link
  • Garbage Increases Epidemic Deaths by 5 Times in One Year, The New Indian Express, December 27, 2013 . Link
  • Stressed-Out Techies in Search of Relief Indulging in Risky Sex: Study,The New Indian Express, December 19, 2013 . Link
  • Call for allocating funds to primary healthcare, The New Indian Express, Kochi. 06th January 2013. Link
  • Andhra Pradesh records most cases of acute diarrhea. The Times of India, Oct 22, 2013. Link
  • Farming of Catfish Thrives Despite Ban. The New Indian Express. 18th December 2013. Link
  • Garbage Increases Epidemic Deaths by 5 Times in One Year. The New Indian Express. 27th December 2013. Link
  • Seasonal Change Brings Health Woes, Sends More Smokers to Hospitals. The New Indian Express. 27th January 2014. Link
  • India Editor’s Choice, SOS: time to reclaim the air we breathe, BMJ 2014; 348 Link
  • India Editor’s Choice, SOS: time to reclaim the air we breathe, BMJ 2014; 348 Link

To find more details or contact, visit the following links

 

Recent Papers

Recent Papers :

Assessment of screening practices for gestational hyperglycaemia in public health facilities: a descriptive study in Bangalore, India

Background. Screening and timely treatment of gestational hyperglycaemia (GH) is proved to be beneficial and improves maternal and foetal health outcomes. To understand screening practices, we explored the knowledge and perceptions of doctors working in public health facilities in Bangalore, India. We also studied participation factors by examining whether undergoing glucose estimation tests affects morning sickness in pregnant women.

Design and Methods. We aimed to understand the screening practices and knowledge of doctors. A semi-structured questionnaire was self-administered by the 50 participant doctors, selected from the sampling frame comprising of all the doctors working in public health facilities. We included 105 pregnant women for baseline assessment, in whom a well-structured questionnaire was used.

Results. We reported that gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening was done in nearly all the health centres (96%). However, only 12% of the doctors could provide all components of GDM diagnosis and management correctly and 46% would diagnose by using a random blood glucose test. A majority (92%) of the doctors had poor knowledge (68%) about the cut-off values of glucose tests. More than 80% of pregnant women experienced some discomfort mostly due to rapid ingestion glucose in short span of time.

Conclusions. Our study established that screening for GH is done in most public health facilities. Nonetheless, knowledge of doctors on the glucose tests and their interpretation needs improvement. Re-orientation trainings of the doctors can improve their knowledge and thereby can efficiently screen for GH. Further, adequate planning prior to the tests can aid successful completion of them.

The Epidemic of HIV, Syphilis, Chlamydia and Gonorrhea and the Correlates of Sexual Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Jiangsu, China, 2009

Background

In China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is expanding among men who have sex with men (MSM). As independent risk factors of HIV infection, the epidemics of Chlamydia (CT) and Gonorrhea (NG) in MSM were not well studied, particular for the risk factors of these infectious. The objectives of current reported study were to understand the dynamics of HIV and other sexual transmitted infections (STIs) among MSM in Jiangsu, China, and to measure factors that correlated with STIs.

Methods

In order to gain more participants, a multisite cross-sectional study design was used in our study, by using convenience-sampling to recruit MSM in two Changzhou and Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China, between the July and October of 2009.

Results

In this comprehensive survey involving MSM in two cities of Jiangsu province of China, the prevalence of STIs of CT (6.54%), NG (3.63%), syphilis (20.34%) and HIV (11.62%) were measured. Overall, the STIs prevalence (CT, NG or syphilis) for the participants in our study was 26.39%, meanwhile, 3.4% (14 out of the 413) participants had at least two kinds of STIs. Meeting casual partners at parks, public restrooms or other public areas, having had anal sex with men in the past six months, having had STI symptoms in the past year were positively correlated with STIs positive, with adjusted ORs of 4.61(95%CI 1.03–20.75), 1.91(95%CI 1.14–3.21) and 2.36(95%CI 1.07,5.24).

Conclusion

Our study findings reiterate the fact that Chinese MSM are highly susceptible to acquiring syphilis, CT, NG and HIV, and there is an urgent need for intervention targeted towards this population. Behavioral measures should constitute an important part of the targeted intervention. Furthermore, the already implemented preventive and diagnostic services for HIV should be expanded to include syphilis CT and NG, too.

An appraisal of the tuberculosis programme in India using an ethics framework

This is a review of the manner in which the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) is being implemented, with a focus on the attention being paid to ethical principles and the incorporation of these into the programme. The article elucidates how ethical principles can be applied to protect the rights of the potential beneficiaries of the RNTCP. The authors consider the RNTCP in the light of a framework that is usually applied in research to evaluate ethical principles in public health practice. The three key principles of the framework are: respect for persons, beneficence and justice. The authors propose that this framework be used to make an ethical evaluation of other public health programmes at several levels, since this could bring far- reaching benefits to society .

Consistently High Unprotected Anal Intercourse (UAI) and factors correlated with UAI among men who have sex with men: implication of a serial cross-sectional study in Guangzhou, China

 

Is hypertension associated with job strain? A meta-analysis of observational studies

Epidemiological Correlates of Breast Cancer in South India